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conditions in which authoritarian states emerged

By the end of the second close read, you should be able to answer the following questions: Finally, here are some questions that will help you focus on why this article matters and how it connects to other content youve studied. Mistake #2: Using The Terms Interchangeably. The German banking system collapsed, and by 1930 unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. The author argues that Italian Fascism never gained the level of totalitarian control the Nazis had in Germany. In someincluding Algeria, Armenia, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Sudanprotests have driven leaders out of power. After initial success in containing the virus, Singapore was struck by subsequent outbreaks among its population of migrant workers. This document contains: The emergence of authoritarian states: Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: Economic factors. With a lack of guidance from the top, disorder among the governors ensued, as some officials adopted measures the Kremlin criticized as excessive and others took measures that were deemed insufficient. Photo of Mussolini and Hitler standing next to each other, each dressed in their military uniforms. NARRATOR: But deep-seated attitudes about racial hierarchy played out during the conflict. Inflation was threatening the living standards of all Cubans, rising to 40% a year for foodstuffs whilst pay levels stagnated. To what extent did popular support for the aims and ideology of one authoritarian/single-party leader contribute to the rise to power of that leader? What were his aims economically and socially? The leaders of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan both responded to the arrival of the virus by outright denying its presence in their countries. How consistent was this with Castro's overall vision for Cuban society? Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social . A devastating biological virus has translated into a damaging political virus that has markedly eroded the overall state of freedom in the world in just six months. mussolini created a dictarship in italy when he was given the position as prime minister, Course: World History Project - 1750 to the Present, World History Project - 1750 to the Present. On November 21, "squads" of Blackshirts launched an attack on the Socialists in Bologna. Graded student examples with one case study. David Eacker is a Ph.D. student in History at Indiana UniversityBloomington. You should include the following ideas from the unit content of Paper 2 Topic Authoritarian States: Emergence of the State. Separately, Chinas envoy to the EU, Fu Cong, said in an interview published on Monday that Beijings cooperation with Europe and other nations was endless, just as its ties with Russia were unlimited. The fighting in northern Italy had shaped the Fascist movement in four ways: By 1922, with these experiences behind them, Mussolini and his followers liked their chances of taking over Italy. Angry, aggrieved citizens are not a solid foundation for regime durability. Mussolini came to power eleven years before Hitler did, and Italian Fascists were active as early as 1919. These youth groups fostered a cult of violent masculinity, expected girls to aspire only to traditional maternal roles, and promoted the authoritarian belief of blind loyalty to the nation. Germanys fledgling democracy was profoundly tested by the crumbling of old values and fears of what might come next. Still, Fascism in Italy was not without racism. I dont see them either. In Tanzania, which has not published nationwide figures relating to the coronavirus since May 8, President John Magufuli insisted that the country had defeated the virus through prayer. 'Hitler and his party would never have come to power without the severe economic and political crisis that engulfed Germany from 1929 onwards' - Overy. Finally, the outcome of the campaign affirmed the Fascist view that, at the end of the day, violent struggle led to power. . (May 2009, TZ1), To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in achieving his aims? Lithuanias foreign minister, Gabrielius Landsbergis, said the diplomats would be asked to explain if Chinas position has changed and reminded were not post-Soviet countries but countries that were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union. They believed victory on the battlefield abroad would bring back the glory of ancient Rome and show the world Italy was a real player in the "game of empire." The skim should be very quick and give you the gist (general idea) of what the article is about. In recent months, countries such as Algeria, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Russia, Thailand, and Uzbekistan have passed so-called fake news laws related to the pandemic that criminalize criticisms of their governments responses to the public health emergency or even reporting of pandemic conditions that does not match the governments preferred narratives. It is the ending of the world. Half of all Frenchmen aged 20 to 32 at wars outbreak were dead when it was over. (modern). Thomas Carothers is senior vice president for studies and the Harvey V. Fineberg Chair for Democracy Studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. -Tried to limit Hitler's powers as chancellor in 1932. -Anti-semitism appeared a bit potentially to impress and imitate ally Hitler-- POPE DID NOT LIKE, Institute of Industrial Reconstruction (IRI): To many, including 30-year old former army corporal Adolf Hitler, it seemed the country had been stabbed in the backbetrayed by subversives at home and by the government who accepted the armistice. Fear of revolution. His trial brought him fame and followers. Social and economic policies in authoritarian states did not always achieve their aims.. Beijing has insisted it respects the status of the independent nations that emerged from the USSR after totally unacceptable remarks by Chinas ambassador to France questioning the sovereignty of former Soviet states sparked outrage in EU capitals. It was a cataclysm that darkened the worlds view of humanity and its future. The EUs top diplomat, Josep Borrell, said the bloc would reassess and recalibrate our strategy towards China, adding that foreign ministers would discuss Lus statements as part of planned EU talks on China on Monday. Communist Party: -Fear of Bolshevik revolution. - Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system She has taught at Sonoma State University and Stanford. In 1938 Mussolini published a "Manifesto of Fascist Racism." One example is the Holocaust during the Second World War. Use of legal methods; use of force; charismatic leadership; dissemination of propaganda, - ABYSSINIA: Italy decides to invade Abyssinia (won and took steps towards rebuilding roman empire) ROMAN CATHOLICISM= official state religion of Italy, Authoritarian control was never completely achieved bc M had to SHARE power with TRADITIONAL italian groups such as the monarchy and the catholic church. His research focuses on modern Europe with an emphasis on Germany and Britain from 1789 to 1918. (May 2007, May 2005), It was personality and not circumstances that brought rulers of single-party states to power. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Emergence of authoritarian states Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system. Its important that when it comes to China, the EU speaks with one voice If we dont do that, theyll have us for lunch, they said. irreconcilable disparities that were rooted in the different political conditions and traditions of each country. 95 - Outline why the Rectification Campaign of 1986 was launched, and what were the results'. Moreover, most authoritarianswhatever the quality of their pandemic policiesface enormous new economic pressures as a result of the virus. They believed Japan had a superior culture, and could rule other Asians better than the European empires had. The Italian foreign minister, Antonio Tajani, said he also disagreed with Lus comments. To what extent was authoritarian control achieved in two 20th-century states? How power was consolidated and maintained; legal methods versus use of force, treatment of opposition, impact of foreign policy. 2. The Nazi Party recruited, organized, and produced a newspaper to spread its message. Yet many other authoritarian or authoritarian-leaning leaders have shown startling weakness in facing the pandemic, falling back on deeply ingrained habits of lying to deny inconvenient facts, spin conspiracy theories, and create alternative realities. Examine the role of education and propaganda in the maintenance of power in Maos China. It's obvious to usnowthat the rise of authoritarianism, including fascism, was paving the way for leaders in many countries to command the obedience of whole populations, even when these leaders began to order the killing of civilians. We can see how Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and others began to attack journalists, control the flow of information, and stir up nationalism by persecuting ethnic minorities or invading desirable lands. First he attacked the Greek island of Corfu. 83 - How did Castro deal with Lanz + Urrutria, and how did this reflect on him as leader? Germanys territory was reduced by 13%. But this time it gathers . colonial rule (1910-1945). Public domain. In other words, the lack of a reasonably level playing field notwithstanding, elections are still competitivealbeit unfair. However, in Indonesia the democratic process was suspended altogether and after about a decade of independence . Through violence, they had become what one historian called, "a. Though this massacre was never acknowledged, some Japanese leaders privately justified it as necessary to "pacify" ("make peaceful") the Chinese population, whom they saw as members of an inferior nation. These crackdowns impede effective public health responses, given that civil society can be a crucial partner to governmentsespecially for authoritarians with weak state capacity, such as those in many countries in Africa, former Soviet states, and the Middle Eastin terms of collecting and distributing accurate and timely health-related information and delivering resources and care. The result was a state that, while authoritarian, was never really totalitarian within the territory of Italy. But we can also see similarities in the ways that they emerged. It is hollowing out democratic institutions and enhancing the tools of repression in developing countries. Unsurprisingly, the economic conditions in a nation have long played an integral role in the emergence of authoritarian states, with such an idea perfectly illustrated through the establishment of Benito Mussolini's fascist authoritarian state . The EU is an important trading partner for China as it reboots its economy after three years of zero-Covid. The Fascists soon followed up with assaults throughout the region. This report sets out six types of authoritarian challenges: military threats, such as annexation of territory, hybrid warfare and assertive behaviour; coercion, through political and economic efforts to intimidate and cajole; The NSDAP, after becoming reallowed as a political party in 1925, changed their focus and used the democratic system of the Weimar Republic to gain power. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 By 1938, the Nazis were physically expelling some Jews and debating massive resettlement plans. High inflation and unemployment. In January 1933, when the old war hero, President Paul von Hindenburg, invited Hitler to serve as Chancellor in a coalition government, the Nazis could hardly believe their luck. In some ways, their actions were like experiments, pushing the boundaries of authoritarian rule to see what they could get away with. Thus, despite the spike in repressive measures that the coronavirus has produced so far, the medium- to long-term prospects for many authoritarian governments are less certain today than they were before the pandemic hit. Within Italy, Mussolini promoted the ideas of. The democratic nature of the Weimar Republic paradoxically led directly to the creation of Nazi authoritarian state, as it created an environment of expression and new ideas in which Nazism flourished. The Chinese embassy in Paris issued a formal statement saying Lus comments were not a policy declaration but the expression of personal viewpoints during a television interview. - Mussolini was arrested and executed by a group of Italian Partisans, Battle over Southern Problem: Fail (wanted to build villages in sicily) Asked if China stood behind the envoys remarks, the foreign ministrys spokesperson Mao Ning said China had been one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with former Soviet states. Historical Conditions. He used the jail time to dictate his political ideas in a book,Mein KampfMy Struggle. Paper 2 questions- Origins and development of Authoritarian and single-party states Emergence of Authoritarian States: - Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors, social division, impact of war, weakness of political system. Analyze the conditions that enabled one left-wing leader to become the ruler of a single-party state. Hitlers ideological goals included territorial expansion, consolidation of a racially pure state, and elimination of the European Jews and other perceived enemies of Germany. Download PDF. Effective national public health responses to the pandemic require not just clear, consistent mandates from the top, but integrated approaches in which regional and local authorities can take initiative, adapt responses to local conditions, and report critical information up the line. (May 10 TZ1), Assess the importance of economic distress and ideological appeal in the rise to power of one left-wing and one right-wing single-party ruler. Dont assume western democracy will last forever, Ukraine ammunition depot reportedly hit in wave of Russian missile attacks. (May 2006), Analyse thenature and extent of internal opposition and the methods used to deal with this opposition by Stalin, Evaluate the contribution to the rise to power of Hitler of each of the following: National Socialist ideology; the use of force; economic crises. What impact did this have? (Nov 09), Unpopular rulers or governments, and their overthrow, were responsible for the formation of the majority of twentieth century single-party states. To what extent do you agree with this assertion? In Egypt and Russia, doctors who criticize or challenge the governments response to the pandemic risk detention or physical retaliation. These laws defined who had "German" blood and who did not. Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system, 2.) Although not really fascist, these governments were heavily influenced by military and industrial leaders because both sectors wanted Japan to take over territories in Asia. Hitler spoke to the SA, his army of storm troopers. To what extent was the role of propaganda used to consolidate and maintain . Thus unlike minorities in Italy, Ethiopians were viewed by most Fascists as barbaric "others" who could never become Italian. It became known as the war to end all wars. It cast an immense shadow on tens of millions of people. We include resources for teaching with limited class time, for English/Language Arts, and for History classes. Power is concentrated in the hands of a single leader or a . Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system. Read and make notes on: (red - conditions; weaknesses of others;black - methods, tactics used by Castro), 63-4 - 1940s Batista's Cuba + Autentico Presidencies. It is hard to blind citizens slammed by a national public health emergency to the realities of weak leadership at the top and incoherent governance at local levels. Citizens surging discontent toward many authoritarian countries may not necessarily translate into immediate political instability or change. First and foremost is a penchant for feeble rather than decisive leadership. Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system Yet many authoritarians instead misuse subnational governance as a flak jacketa shield for deflecting responsibility and criticism more than for solving governance challenges. 85-86 - What challenges did he face in 1959 and how did he overcome them in the years that followed? How did Japanese leaders justify Japans imperial expansion? And Chinese leaders are working to dilute the liberal norms and erode human rights protections that are . Photo of the fascist military forces known as the Blackshirts marching down an Italian street in Parma. Organized into collective action by the state, young people supplied political energy to Fascism in Italy and elsewhere. Now we must win the German people. Moreover, among democracies, those with leaders who have strong illiberal tendencies, like U.S. President Donald Trump and Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, have done the worst in responding to the pandemic. Keep in mind that when you read the article, it is a good idea to write down any vocab you see in the article that is unfamiliar to you. 2 . In late March, as case rates and fatalities soared across Europe, President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus dismissed a reporters concerns about the spread of the virus in his own country: There are no viruses here. Summarise how Castro established control, and how he dealt with external and internal enemies 'Maintenance of power was reliant upon the silencing of opposition". Discuss (a) the ideology of, and (b) . Ultimately, however, the Fascists were unable to achieve the kind of totalitarian, authoritarian system they had envisioned. The Fascists, led by Mussolini, formed a street-fighting group called the Blackshirts to support the landowners. Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system; (Bay of Pigs; Cuban Missile Crisis). . (Nov 06), To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal and ability? How consistent was this vision to Cuba in reality? 87 - How did the US respond to the Cuban Revolution? Mussolini, founder of the Italian National Fascist party, was among the first to experiment in this way. He served only a short jail sentence, and after the ban was lifted on his National Socialist Party, Hitler and his followers rejoined the battle in the streets and in the countryside. What distinguished Italian Fascism from Nazisms biological view of race? NARRATOR: Methods used to establish authoritarian states: persuasion and coercion; the role of leaders; ideology; the use of force; propaganda . The mixed record of authoritarians responses to the coronavirus undercuts any simple conclusion that the pandemic will bolster authoritarianism globally over the long term. Aftermath of World War I and the Rise of Nazism, 1918-1933, NARRATOR: To probe the potential political consequences of the pandemic for authoritarian regimes, it is useful to look more closely at why many have fallen short in their responses to the coronavirus. Slowed or negative growth, straitened budgets, devastated middle classes, and swelling ranks of poverty-stricken citizens will create political pressure on governments around the worldauthoritarian and democratic alike. 94 - How Communist was Castro? Fascism is a political ideology that emphasizes the importance of the nation-state, while Nazism is a specific form of fascism that is based on the belief in racial superiority. 81 - What was Castro's early ideology based around? Resistance was muted (unnoticed) at first, but grew rapidly as Japanese forces attacked the Chinese capital of Nanjing. -PACT OF STEELE formal military alliance committing Italy to fight on Germany's side in the event of war Do you see any of them flying around? Now that youve skimmed the article, you should preview the questions you will be answering. However, as we have seen, Mussolini's compromises with conservatives and liberal elites put up too many obstacles for this plan to succeed. This had important consequences, because colonial policy in Ethiopia provided the basis for Italy's antisemitic race laws in 1938. In the 1920s, Mussolini pursued an aggressive foreign policy. The humiliation of Germanys defeat and the peace settlement that followed in 1919 would play an important role in the rise of Nazism and the coming of a second world war just 20 years later. The fighting nourished the Fascists belief in violence as the true path to manhood. The new governments first targets were political opponents. After local resistance was crushed, Mussolini's regime established a tight grip over the region. Advances in the technology of killing included the use of poison gas. Will the Invasion of Ukraine Change Russia-Africa Relations? (Nov 2009), Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power ofoneruler of a single-party state. Yet this discouraging near-term political picture becomes less ominous, or at least less clear-cut, if one looks down the road. Direct link to Faviel Rapalo's post this was cool. competitive authoritarian regimes "contest seriously for power" (2010a, 5). Despite the cutting-edge manipulative tactics and tricks of many authoritarian regimes, they are not immune from what is perhaps the central political imperative of this century: the steadily rising demands of citizens almost everywhere for capable, effective governance. Battle for Land: Success (decreased unemployment because people had to drain swamps and plough land) The conditions in which authoritarian states emerged were mainly determined by economic factors.. But the Nazis never received more than 38% of the vote in a free national election. The German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier warned this year that there is a "worldwide fascination with authoritarianism".. When nobody stopped them, they became bolder and more aggressive. Four key weaknesses are manifest. We have won power in Germany. But it is likely to contribute to the significant authoritarian shakiness that has made itself felt over the past decade. Before the onset of the Great Depression in Germany in 1929-1930, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (or Nazi Party for short) was a small party on the radical right of the German political spectrum. 'Domestic policy rarely managed to achieve its aims', Discuss how far you agree with this statement with reference to two authoritarian states you have studied, both from different regions. "The conditions in which authoritarian states emerged were mainly determined by economic factors." Discuss with reference to two authoritarian states. This topic focuses on exploring the conditions that facilitated the rise of authoritarian states in the 20th century, as well as the methods used by parties and leaders to take and maintain power. In the Reichstag (parliament) elections of May 2, 1928, the Nazis received only 2.6 percent of the national vote, a proportionate decline from 1924, when the Nazis received 3 percent . It cannot be that two million Germans should have fallen in vain, Adolf Hitler later wrote. Another million were sent to prisons called Gulags. No party was able to win a clear majority, and without political consensus, successive governments could not effectively govern the nation. When they seized power, Fascists had hoped to take over the Italian state completely. Authoritarian states DO NOT emerge in times of peace and prosperity. Stalin and his supporters identified their enemies in political and social ways. (May 08 TZ2), Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state. - MORE PEOPLE BIGGER ITALY 90-92 - How did Castro deal with the continuing US attempts to oust him? The unstable authoritarian pathway that so many states followed after colonial rule was . One senior EU diplomat said the EU needed to do better in handling relations with China and find a unified line. Beginning in 1925, Mussolini tried to strengthen the party and expand its reach. David Wong was a 20192020 James C. Gaither Junior Fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and is currently working on a digital start-up. This is a list of key notes that you can use in paper 2 as the most important factors that need to be studied as recommended by the History guide. 100. . Crime was on the rise. Use tab to navigate through the menu items. You should be looking at the title, author, headings, pictures, and opening sentences of paragraphs for the gist. Much like Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin used violence and propaganda to maintain order and power. Landsbergis tweeted: If anyone is still wondering why the Baltic states dont trust China to broker peace in Ukraine, heres a Chinese ambassador arguing that Crimea is Russian and our countries borders have no legal basis.. - Outline Castro's health and education policies. He is currently working on a dissertation about missionaries, theology, and empire in the 18th and 19th centuries. - abortion and divorce were illegal, -Racism appeared a bit in Romanita movement: 'prestigious race' needed to create and maintain empire Russia has lost its soft power: how war in Ukraine destabilises old Soviet allies, Original reporting and incisive analysis, direct from the Guardian every morning, 2023 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies. Only outside of Italy, in the arena of empire, were the Fascists really able to experiment with totalitarianism. 97- - How did Castro deal with the media? Many veterans and other citizens struggled to understand Germanys defeat and the uncertain future. Political Instability. New social problems emerged from the impact of rapid industrialization and the growth of cities. Before you read the article, you should skim it first. They work together. HItler a Career" by Joachim Fest - the preview: Create your own unique website with customizable templates. In the early 1930s, the frequency of elections was dizzying. An authoritarian regime focuses on the maintenance of order at the expense of personal freedom. The Fascists learned that paramilitary violence was an effective political tool. "The conditions in which authoritarian states emerged were mainly determined by economic factors." Discuss with reference to two authoritarian states. 20. Conditions in which authoritarian states emerged: economic factors; social division; impact of war; weakness of political system, Methods used to establish authoritarian states: persuasion and coercion; the role of leaders; ideology; the use of force; propaganda, Use of legal methods; use of force; charismatic leadership; dissemination of propaganda, Nature, extent and treatment of opposition, The impact of the success and/or failure of foreign policy on the maintenance of power, Aims and impact of domestic economic, political, cultural and social policies, The impact of policies on women and minorities, Authoritarian control and the extent to which it was achieved.

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conditions in which authoritarian states emerged